For the purposes of this Auditing Standard, the following terms have the meanings attributed below:


Assertions means representations by management and those charged with governance, explicit or otherwise, that are embodied in the financial report, as used by the auditor to consider the different types of potential misstatements that may occur.


Business risk means a risk resulting from significant conditions, events, circumstances, actions or inactions that could adversely affect an entity’s ability to achieve its objectives and execute its strategies, or from the setting of inappropriate objectives and strategies.


Internal control means the process designed, implemented and maintained by those charged with governance, management and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance about the achievement of an entity’s objectives with regard to reliability of financial reporting, effectiveness and efficiency of operations, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The term “controls” refers to any aspects of one or more of the components of internal control.


Risk assessment procedures means the audit procedures performed to obtain an understanding of the entity and its environment, including the entity’s internal control, to identify and assess the risks of material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, at the financial report and assertion levels.


Significant risk means an identified and assessed risk of material misstatement that, in the auditor’s judgement, requires special audit consideration.